FAQs – Copyright
Copyright means the exclusive legal right given to the creator to do or authorize others to do certain acts in relation to original literary, dramatic or musical works, artistic works, cinematograph films and sound recordings.
Original literary, artistic, dramatic, musical works; Cinematograph films; and Sound recordings
If published within the life time of the author of a literary work, the term is for the life time of the author plus 60 years. (b) For cinematographic films, records, photographs, posthumous publication, anonymous publication, works of government and international agencies, the term is 60 years from the beginning, of the calendar year following the year in which the work was published. (c) For broadcasting, the term is 25 years from the beginning of the calendar year following the year, in which the broadcast was made.
• the positive condition that the work has to be original;
• the negative condition that the protection can extend only to expression and not to ideas; and
• the condition of fixation which is implicit under the Act.
• for the entire world or for a specific country or territory;
• or for the full term of copyright or part thereof;
• or relating to all the rights comprising the copyright or only part of such rights.
• when any person without a license granted by the owner of the Copyright or the Registrar of Copyrights or in contravention of the conditions of a license so granted or of any conditions imposed by a competent authority under Copyright act – does anything, the exclusive right to do which is, by Copyright act, conferred upon the owner of Copyright, or permits for profit any place to be used for the communication of the work to public where such communication constitutes an infringement of the Copyright in the work.
• when any person makes for sale or hire, or sells or lets for hire, or by way of trade displays or offers for sale or hire, or distributes either for the purpose of trade or to such an extent as to affect prejudicially the owner of the Copyright, or by way of trade exhibits in public, any infringing copies of the work. It is not necessary that the alleged infringement should be an exact or verbatim copy of the original but its resemblance with the original in a large measure is sufficient to indicate that it is a copy.
• Universal Copyright Convention at Geneva in 1952.
• Universal Copyright Convention as revised at Paris on 24th July 1971.
• Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, Paris Act of 24th July 1971 as amended on September 28th 1979.
• WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization Diplomatic Conference Geneva, December 2 to 20, 1996 WIPO Copyright Treaty of December 20th 1996.
• WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty of December 20th 1996
• The World Trade Organization Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Final Act Marrakech on 15th April 1994.
• hear appeals against the orders of the Registrar of Copyright;
• hear applications for rectification of entries in the Register of Copyrights;
• adjudicate upon disputes on assignment of copyright;
• grant compulsory licenses to publish or republish works (in certain circumstances);
• grant compulsory license to produce and publish a translation of a literary or dramatic work in any language after a period of seven years from the first publication of the work;
• hear and decide disputes as to whether a work has been published or about the date of publication or about the term of copyright of a work in another country;
• fix rates of royalties in respect of sound recordings under the cover-version provision; and
• fix the resale share right in original copies of a painting, a sculpture or a drawing and of original manuscripts of a literary or dramatic or musical work.
• in relation to a literary or dramatic work, the author of the work;
• in relation to a musical work, the composer;
• in relation to an artistic work other than a photograph, the artist;
• in relation to a photograph, the person taking the photograph;
• in relation to a cinematograph film or sound recording, the producer; and
• in relation to any literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work which is computer generated, the person who causes the work to be created.
Except in relation to computer programs and sound recording, these include the right to:
• Reproduce the work
• Issue copies of the work to the public
• Perform the work in public
• Make a cinematograph film or sound recording
• Make translation of work
• Make adaptation of the work
In respect of computer programs it includes the right to:
• Do any of the acts afforded to the other works
• Sell or give on commercial rental a copy of the work
• for the purpose of research or private study,
• for criticism or review,
• for reporting current events,
• in connection with judicial proceeding,
• performance by an amateur club or society if the performance is given to a non-paying audience, and
• the making of sound recordings of literary, dramatic or musical works under certain conditions.
• To make a sound or visual recording of the performance.
• To reproduce a sound or visual recording of the performance.
• To broadcast the performance.
• To communicate the performance to the public otherwise than through broadcast.
A sound recording generally comprises various rights. It is necessary to obtain the licenses from each and every right owner in the sound recording. This would, inter alia, include the producer of the sound recording, the lyricist who wrote the lyrics, and the musician who composed the music.